Social and Behavior Questions
In the 1990’s, the Kennedy Krieger Institute conducted a study to determine how various levels of repairs to run-down rental homes would reduce blood lead levels among inner-city children. As part of the study, landlords were encouraged to rent homes with lead-based paint to people with young children. The researchers periodically took blood samples from children and dust and water samples from their homes. At that time, researchers knew that ingesting lead-based paint could lead to brain damage, but the informed consent forms did not include this information. After repairs and cleaning, the rental homes had 70-90% reduction in their lead levels. This study was shut down by the federal government due to an ethical violation. What was the ethical violation?
- There was potential for harm that was not disclosed
- Rental homes did not have 100% reduction in lead levels
- Not everyone received the same benefits
- Only a specific age group was targeted
In the example above (Question 1), families with children were asked to move into homes with potentially harmful lead-based paint. What ethnical concept does this violate?
If a classmate told you that most racial and ethnic disparities can be explained by genetics, which of the following would be the best retort?
- That’s true for some racial groups
- That’s true for mental health but not physical health
- That’s false because the concept of race is biologically indefensible
- That’s false because racial differences in genetics do not statistically explain health disparities
Which of the following statements is correct about the Health Belief Model and the Social Cognitive Theory?
- Both consider reciprocal determinism as critical for change
- Both posit that expected outcomes influence behavior change
- Both suggest that intention to change is a key determinant of change
- Both focus on the importance of interpersonal relationships for change
- In which of the following ways are the Diffusion of Innovations Theory and the Transtheoretical Model similar?
a. Both categorize individuals based on their likelihood of change at a given time
b. Both consider the complexity of change as an important predictor for how quickly the change will occur
c. Both require change at multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model
d. Both borrow heavily from Social Learning Theory
- If you were asked to design a smoking cessation intervention using the Social Ecological Model, which of the following would most likely characterize the assessment phase of your planning process?
a. Examining the social structural factors influencing smoking behaviors
b. Indentifying the ideology, behavior, social structure, and technology factors influencing smoking
c. Determining community-specific norms regarding smoking behaviors
d. Determining how multiple levels and systems of influence affect smoking behavior
Which of the following is most likely to be an objective of social and behavioral scientists within public health?
- Identify disease vectors
- Identify the mechanisms of toxicity
- Test hypotheses about health behavior
- Determine key issues for health service delivery
Which of the following is consistent with the “fundamental cause” hypothesis?
- People with the most socioeconomic resources are fundamentally more intelligent and more capable than people who are poor
- People with the most socioeconomic resources benefit more from new health-promoting technologies than people who are poor
- People with the most socioeconomic resources have healthier genes than those who are poor
- People with the most socioeconomic resources have less stressful life events than people who are poor
When people have very few social ties they:
- Are at greater risk for dying from most diseases
- Are at greater risk for surviving most painful diseases
- Are at lower risk for developing most diseases
- Are at lower risk for mental health problems
- As planners reach the phase of assessing the organizational mission, policies, and regulations, they will sometimes be faced with a conflict: am I accountable to the organization’s policy mandate or the programs’ goals? In such a case, the ideal course of action for planners is
a. place less emphasis on the felt needs of the population
b. adhere to organizational policies even though they may be inconsistent with the real needs of the constituency
c. seek ways to interpret, adapt, or change the policies to make them conducive to the changes needed.
d. be transparent and inform constituents that they may be obliged to conform to organizational mandates.
Governmental health programs are sometimes criticized for not placing greater emphasis on social and economic factors. This lack of emphasis occurs in large part because of:
- inadequate epidemiologic data to determine the critical social and economic factors
- the demand to focus programs on specific diseases and/or risk factors
- limited understanding by staff of the influence that social and economic factors play in health
- a lack of participatory planning